25 Jan

Robert Boyle’s Corpuscularian Theory

One of a series of lectures delivered by Peter Millican (2009) to first-year philosophy students at the University of Oxford as part of the General Philosophy course.

14 Dec

Anne Conway and Ireland

Woman reading a letter in a large hall. Her dog is in the foreground and a cat looking down from the stairs behind her.
Detail of Perspective View with a Woman Reading a Letter by Samuel van Hoogstraten Some believe this depicts Anne Conway. Wikimedia, Public Domain

Anne Conway is not an Irish philosopher. Born in England in 1631, her philosophical interests were encouraged by her half-brother Henry Finch, who introduced her to the Cambridge Platonist Henry More, who was one of John’s tutors at Christ’s College, Cambridge. She was corresponding with More on philosophical matters by 1650. She married Edward Conway, later 1st Earl of Conway in 1651. She died in 1679.

via @jdmccafferty
via @jdmccafferty

A small portion of her writing was translated into Latin and published in 1690 as Principia philosophiae antiquissimae et recentissimae (The Principles of the Most Ancient and Modern Philosophy), and translated back to English in 1692. Conroy criticised both the materials (such as Hobbes) and the Cartesians. She argues that there is one substance in the created universe, but this is not inert mechanical matter in motion but living and perceiving, and consists of spirit. Mediating between God and creation is “middle nature”. This brief summary shows the neoPlatonist elements in her thought, a thread within early modern thought that is often overlooked.

While not Irish Anne Conwayhad links to Ireland. Her husband Edward Conway became (in 1755) the 3rd Viscount Killultagh in the Irish peerage. His father was a learned man, who amassed a huge library of 11,000 books which was a casualty of the Irish Rebellion in 1641. Edward Conway had been recalled from his Grand Tour of Europe to defend the Irish lands at Portmore, near Lisburn, Co. Antrim. While he never attended university, Conway was aware of Descartes and Campanella. While Anne Conway became a Quaker, Conway remained Anglican but patronised clergymen and theologians who were “latitudinal in practise and liberal in theology” (Hutton, 2004, p. 58). The best-known of these was Jeremy Taylor, who Conway brought to Portmore in 1658. Both Conways were close to Taylor, who became Bishop of Down and Conor after the Restoration.

Anne Conway spent little if any time in Ireland. However she corresponded with Robert Boyle. More knew Boyle through the Hartlib Circle, and the Conway and Boyle families knew each other through their interests in Ireland. That link raises the possibility that Anne Conway knew Lady Ranelagh but if there was any correspondence it no longer survives. It is likely that Anne Conway corresponded with Dorothy Moore: there is a suggestion she contacted Moore regarding Henry More’s health. In addition Moore had connections with the Court of the Winter Queen in the Hague while Conway corresponded with the Winter Queen’s daughter, Elizabeth of Bohemia. It’s tantalisingly possible Anne Conway, Lady Ranelagh and Dorothy Moore had discussions together, but it’s likely we’ll never know for sure. Indeed, if Conway’s Principia had not been printed, we would almost certainly have no idea how extensive her philosophical work had been. It shows how fragile the records of 17th century women, and many 17th century men, were.

Further reading
A good place to start exploring Anne Conway and her work is on her Project Vox page, which includes biography, key facts, portraits, connections, online resources and more:
Conway (1631-1679): Anne Conway, Viscountess Conway and Killultagh

The text (English) of The Principles of the Most Ancient and Modern Philosophy
by Anne Finch, Viscountess of Conway [aka Anne Conway] (London: 1692) is available online from the University of Pennsylvania.

A “translation” in contemporary English is available from Early Modern Texts.

Further information on Anne Conway’s philosophy from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Lady Anne Conway (by Sarah Hutton).

For a biography of Anne Conway see: Sarah Hutton (2004) Anne Conway, a Woman Philosopher, Cambridge University Press. This is the main source for the post above.

Samuel Lewis (1840) A topographical dictionary of Ireland includes an entry on Ballinderry and Portmore mentioning Edward Conway and Jeremy Taylor.

09 Dec

Saving Milton: his friend Lady Ranelagh and his defender John Toland

John Milton dictating 'Paradise Lost' to his daughter due to his blindness

John Milton is most famous today for his epic poem Paradise Lost, a poem that was almost lost due to the cause of Milton’s fame (or infamy) in 1660: his work writing defences of the Commonwealth against Royalist attacks. These were written when Milton was Secretary of Foreign Tongues to the Council of State from 1649. The works included Eikonoklastes (1649, justifying Charles I’s execution) and The Ready and Easy Way to Establish a Free Commonwealth (1660, arguing against the Restoration). After the Restoration, Milton had to be hidden by friends: he eventually was arrested and held in custody for a few months. Friends in high places worked to ensure he was included in the Act of Free and General Pardon, Indempnity and Oblivion. Their success meant that Milton was released from prison, allowing him to complete his half-finished epic poem 1.

Milton had first come to attention as a poet. His first published work was Lycidas, an acclaimed pastoral elegy written for Dorothy Moore‘s brother Edward King. It’s likely that Dorothy Moore met Milton at some point, though as far as I’m aware there is no record of it. In the 1640s Milton became acquainted with members of the Hartlib circle, including Samuel Hartlib, John Durie, Henry Oldenburg and Lady Ranelagh. Milton and Hartlib probably met in 1643 and in 1644 Hartlib circulated Milton’s tract Of Education, To Master Samuel Hartlib2.
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08 Dec

“Pious opinion”: the Irish Franciscans and the Immaculate Conception

Fresco of Virgo Immaculata (Mary, the Immaculate Conception) from St. Isidore's (Irish) College Rome

Today is the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, possibly the most misunderstood feast in the Roman Catholic calendar. It celebrates the conception of Mary (the conception of Jesus is the feast of the Annunciation, celebrated on the 25th March.) Why “Immaculate”? In 1854 Pope Pius IX pronounced that Mary “in the first instance of her conception, by a singular privilege and grace granted by God, in view of the merits of Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the human race, was preserved exempt from all stain of original sin”1.

This dogma was debated long before the 19th century. Irish involvement in the debate means that this is also a highly appropriate day to look at the group of scholars who disprove the theory that Ireland produced no influential religious thinkers2. (James Ussher can be cited as another 17th century counter-example.)

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26 Jun

Correcting Lucretius: Dúngal and Carolingian Cosmology

King and Court Astronomer

In January 1417 a man called Poggio Bracciolini pulled a book from a shelf in a German monastic library. The text was De Rerum Natura, a long poem written by the Roman Lucretius in the 1st century BC outlining the tenets of Epicureanism. Much has been written about that event and its effect on the Renaissance, even suggesting it was central in creating modernity1. The story of the text before it was found is less well known.

De Rerum Natura was a poem written in the 1st century BC outlining the tenets of Epicureanism, a philosophical school founded by Epicurus (c. 341-c. 271 BC)2. Epicureanism grew to be one of the major philosophical schools, declining in popularity from the 2nd century on. The oldest manuscripts of the poem that survive are held in the library of Universiteit Leiden: Voss. Lat. F. 30, from the early 9th century nicknamed O and Voss. Lat. Q. 94, nicknamed Q3.

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18 Jun

Robert Boyle, Irish Identity and Science

This year’s 5th Annual Robert Boyle Summer School which runs from June 23 2016 explores ‘Science and Irish Identity’. Organiser Eoin Gill argues that in Ireland, scientific achievements are less celebrated than literary ones. Gill says that1:

It is not unusual for people to talk openly about Yeats and Joyce and their significance in our history and culture. Science has been squeezed out, and some suggest it is because many of our leading scientists were Anglo-Irish and science therefore was seen as an Anglo-Irish pursuit and spurned by the Free State. Others claim that the Catholic Church was wary of science and some even suggest that Catholics themselves leaned more towards superstition than rational inquiry.

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17 May

Robert Boyle Summer School, Lismore Co. Waterford, 23rd – 26th June 2016

The Robert Boyle Summer School 2016 (an event aimed at all interested in exploring different aspects of culture) will explore Science and Irish Identity. See details of the programme here on robertboyle.ie. Book tickets via Eventbrite.

From robertboyle.ie:

Ireland’s literary and musical achievements are well acknowledged home and abroad and celebrated in many successful and long established summer schools. The Robert Boyle Summer School was established to explore the place of science in our heritage and culture and the 2016 School will address the theme “Science and Irish Identity”. This theme will resonate with the commemorations of the 1916 Rising and the Battle of the Somme and the school will take place in between these events from 23-26 June. The theme presents the opportunity to explore different Irish Identities not in terms of conflict but in their involvement in and attitudes towards science.

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17 Mar

Literacy and Learning in Ireland before and after Patrick

National Heritage Park, Wexford (c) Irish Philosophy

National Heritage Park, Wexford. (c) Irish Philosophy

There are two myths about early medieval Ireland. One is that it was an ignorant, isolated place. The other is that without Ireland, civilisation would have been lost.

Pollen evidence suggests a growing population in the Ireland of the third and fourth centuries, with agricultural expansion and forest clearance taking place after a previous decline. The landscape was dominated by pastureland, intermingled with scrubby woodland and mixed farming, with few large areas of forest1.

This was a rural society, broken up into túatha and kingdoms. However it was not isolated from the world. Tacitus tells us in the first century AD Roman traders knew the major routes to, and harbours in, Ireland. Imports included wine and fine cloth. There were also Roman-Irish contacts via Romano-British slaves in Ireland and Irish settlements in Wales2. In Wales as well as in Ireland itself we find evidence of the first Irish writing, Ogham.

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20 Feb

Eco on a Perfect Language: Irish

The dream of a perfect language did not only obsess European culture. The story of the confusion of tongues, and of the attempt to redeem its loss through the rediscovery or invention of a language common to all humanity, can be found in every culture.
[…]
It is in the seventh century, before any known document written in Romance or Germanic languages, that the first allusion to our theme appears. It is contained in an attempt, on the part of the Irish grammarians, to defend spoken Gaelic over written Latin. In a work entitled Auracepit na n-Éces (‘the precepts of the poets’), the Irish grammarians refer to the structural material of the tower of Babel as follows: ‘Others affirm that in the tower there were only nine materials, and that these were clay and water, wool and blood, wood and lime, pitch, linen and bitumen…These represent noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, participle, conjunction, preposition, interjection.’
Ignoring the anomaly of the nine parts of the tower and only eight parts of speech, we are meant to understand that the structure of language and the construction of the tower are analogous. This is part of an argument that the Gaelic language constituted the first and only instance of a language that overcame the confusion of tongues. It was the first, programmed language, constructed after the confusion of tongues, and created by the seventy-two wise men of the school of Fenius.

Umberto Eco (1995) The Search for a Perfect Language (trans. James Fentress), London:Fontana Press, pp. 1, 17, 18.

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10 Feb

Canon Lawyer, Papal Legate: Gille of Limerick

Imago Ecclesiae (Durham Cathedral Library MS B.II.35, fol 36v)

Imago Ecclesiae (Durham Cathedral Library MS B.II.35, fol 36v)

“For the early Irish Lent began the Sunday after Ash Wednesday. Gilbert of Limerick (†1145) insisted on Ash Wednesday” 1. This injunction was part of the programme of church reform that took place in the 12th century, reform that Gilbert (or Gille) of Limerick was deeply involved with. Gille was also “a philosopher whose philosophical thinking form[ed] the basis of his canon law” 2.

We know very little about Gille’s life: there are even numerous versions given of his name. He refers to himself both as Gille and Gillebertus 3. It is not even clear whether he was of Irish or Norse extraction. John Fleming suggests that his family roots are almost certainly in the Hibero-Norse city of Limerick 4, but his choice to retire to Bangor, Co. Down where he died may suggest that as his birthplace 5
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